List of Works Cited

ACT (2017). STEM Education in the US: Where We Are and What We Can Do | 2017. Iowa City: ACT, March 2018.

Allison, P. D. (2002). Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences (Book 136) - Missing Data (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.

Alloway, T.P. (2006). How does working memory work in the classroom? Educational Research and Reviews, 1(4), 134-139.

APA (American Psychological Association), Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education. (2015). Top 20 principles from psychology for preK–12 teaching and learning.

Andrade, H., & Valtcheva, A. (2009). Promoting learning and achievement through self-assessment. Theory into Practice, 48(1), 12-19.

Armstrong, J.E. & Collier, G.E. (1990). Science in biology: An introduction. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Arya, D.J., Hiebert, E.H., & Pearson, P.D. (2011). The effects of syntactic and lexical complexity on the comprehension of elementary science texts. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, Special Issue: Reading Comprehension, 4(1), 107-125.

Bravo, M.A., Cervetti, G.N., Hiebert, E.H., Pearson, P. D. (2007). From passive to active control of science vocabulary. In D.W. Rowe et al. (Eds.), 56th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Oak Creek, WI: National Reading Conference.

Brophy, J. (2010). Establishing a learning community in your classroom. Motivating students to learn, 3rd edition. New York, NY: Routledge, 22-43.

Calderon, M. 2007. Teaching Reading to English Language Learners, Grades 6-12: A Framework for Improving Achievement in the Content Areas, Corwin Press.

Cassady, J., Smith, L., & Thomas, C. (2018). Supporting Emergent Literacy for English Language Learners with Computer-Assisted Instruction. Journal of Research in Reading, v41 n2, p350-369, May 2018.

Chou, M. H. (2014). Assessing English vocabulary and enhancing young English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ motivation through games, songs, and stories. Education 3-13, 42(3), 284-297.

Cohen, J. (2001). Social and emotional education: Core concepts and practices. In J. Cohen (Ed.), Caring classrooms/intelligent schools: The social emotional education of young children (Chapter 1). New York: Teachers College Press.

Connor, C.M., & Morrison, F.J. (2016). Individualizing student instruction in reading: Implications for policy and practice. Reading, Writing, and Language, 3(1), 54-61.

Connor, C.M., Morrison, F.J., Fishman, B.J., Schatschneider, C., & Underwood, P. (2007). Algorithm-Guided Individualized Reading Instruction. Science, 315, 464-465.

Cromley, J. (2009). Reading achievement and science proficiency: International comparisons from the programme on international student assessment. Reading Psychology, 30, 89-118. DOI: 10.1080/02702710802274903

DACP (District Administration Custom Publishing, 2018). Bridging the achievement gap for English language learners. District Administration, February 2018. Retrieved from Last retrieved: August 22, 2018.

Dahlin, K.I.E. (2010). Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs. Reading and Writing, 24(4), 479-491.

Dalton, B. (2012). Multimodal composition and the common core state standards. The Reading Teacher, 66(4), 333-339.

Donner, A., & Klar, N. (2000). Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health research (1st ed.). London: Arnold.

Doyle, B.G., & Bramwell, W. (2006). Promoting emergent literacy and social–emotional learning through dialogic reading. The Reading Teacher, 59(6), 554-564.

Dweck, C.S. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

EDFacts (2016). Consolidated State Performance Report. US Department of Education. Retrieved from Last retrieved February 7, 2017.

File, K., & Adams, R. (2010). Should Vocabulary Instruction Be Integrated or Isolated? TESOL Quarterly. 44. 10.5054/tq.2010.219943.

Fisher, D., McDonald, N., & Strickland, J. (2001). Early literacy development: A sound practice. General Music Today, 14(3), 15-20.

Fluckiger, J. (2010). Single point rubric: A tool for responsible student self-assessment. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 76(4), 18.

Flynn, K.S., Li, L., & Ringstaff, C. (2018). Word Learning Strategies Supplementary Curriculum: Preliminary Findings Related to Research and Practice. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness 2018 Spring Conference, Washington, DC.

Gee, J.P. (2008). Getting Over the Slump: Innovation Strategies to Promote Children’s Learning. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.

Gillespie, A., & Graham, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of writing interventions for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 80(4), 454-473.

Glenberg, A.M., Goldberg, A.B., & Zhu, X. (2009). Improving early reading comprehension using embodied CAI. Instructional Science, 39(1), 27-39.

Glenberg, A., Willford, J., Gibson, B., Goldberg, A., & Zhu, X. (2012). Improving reading to improve math. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(4), 316-340.

Goldstein, H. (1987). Multilevel models in education and social research. London, England: Charles Griffin & Co; New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Graham, S. (2008). Effective writing instruction for all students. Wisconsin Rapids, WI: Renaissance Learning.

Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D'Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012- 4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. Retrieved from

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Santangelo, T. (2015). Research-based writing practices and the common core: Meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. The Elementary School Journal, 115(4), 498-522.

Graves, M.F. (2009). Teaching individual words. New York: Teachers College Press, IRA.

Graves, M.F., Li, L., & Flynn, K.S. (2016). Designing a goal 3 instructional study to optimize results. Paper presented at the Literacy Research Association Annual Conference, Nashville, TN.

Hargrave, A. C., & Sénéchal, M. (2000). A book reading intervention with preschool children who have limited vocabularies: The benefits of regular reading and dialogic reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(1), 75-90.

Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L. H., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Hecker, L. (1997). Walking, Tinkertoys, and Legos: Using movement and manipulatives to help students write. The English Journal, 86(6), 46-52.

Hudson, T. (2017). Six strategies to reach, teach, and close math gaps for Latino English language learners in elementary and middle school. Bellevue, WA: DreamBox Learning.

Huerta, M., & Jackson, J. (2010). Connecting literacy and science to increase achievement for English language learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3), 205-211.

Immordino-Yang, M.H., & Faeth, M. (2016). The role of emotion and skilled intuition in learning. In M.H. Immordino-Yang (Ed.), Emotions, Learning, and the Brain (93-105). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Isbell, R., Sobol, J., Lindauer, L., & Lowrance, A. (2004). The effects of storytelling and story reading on the oral language complexity and story comprehension of young children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(3), 157–163.

Ito, M., Horst, H., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, B., Lange, P., & Robinson, L. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids learning and living with new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the Brain in Mind, 2nd edition. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Juel, C., & Minden-Cupp, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458-492.

Kaminski J., Sloutsky V., & Heckler A. (2008). The Advantage of Abstract Examples in Learning Math. Science 25 Apr 2008: Vol. 320, Issue 5875, pp. 454-455 DOI: 10.1126/science.1154659

Kao, Y., Matlen, B., Tiu, M., & Li, L. (2017). Logic Models as a Framework for Iterative User Research in Educational Technology: Illustrative Cases. In End-User Considerations in Educational Technology Design. Hershey, PA: E-Editorial Discovery.

Kinsella, K. & Hancock, T. (2014). Academic Vocabulary Toolkit. Cengage Learning, Oct 10, 2014.

Koskinen, P. S., Blum, I. H., Bisson, S. A., Phillips, S. M., Creamer, T. S., & Baker, T. K. (2000). Book Access, Shared Reading, and Audio Models: The Effects of Supporting the Literacy Learning of Linguistically Diverse Students in School and at Home. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 23–26.

Kraus, N. (2016). Music, hearing, and education: From the lab to the classroom. ENT and Audiology News, 25(4), 94, 96.

Laufer, B., Ravenhorst-Kalovski, G. (2010). Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners’ vocabulary size and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, April 2010, Volume 22, No. 1, pp. 15–30.

Li, J. (2018). Speak Agent in the Classroom Summary Report. Bloomington: Rockman et al, June 2018. Retrieved from: Last retrieved: August 6, 2018.

Li, L., Flynn, K.S., & Ringstaff, C. (2018). Word Learning Strategies: A program for upper-elementary school students. Paper accepted for American Educational Research Association 2018 Annual Meeting, New York, NY.

Li, L., Flynn, K.S., Ringstaff, C., Tripathy, R., Lepori, K., & Wang, J. (2016). Evaluation of Word Learning Strategies: A program for upper-elementary school students. Paper presented at American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA.

Li, L., Gluck, L., & Tripathy, R. (2018). Improving Educational Technology Use for Students with Disabilities. Paper presented at the Universal Design for Learning Implementation and Research Network Conference, Orlando, FL.

Li, L., Tripathy, R., Flynn, K.S., & Ringstaff, C. (2017). What Works: Implementation and Impact Learning from the Evaluation of the Word-Learning Strategies Program. Paper presented at American Evaluation Association Annual Conference, Washington, DC.

Li, R. (2018, March). Multimodal learning and communication through transnational digital storytelling. Paper presented at the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Chicago, IL.

Lipsett, A. (2011). Supporting emotional regulation in elementary school: Brain-based strategies and classroom interventions to promote self-regulation. LEARNing Landscapes, 5(1), 157-175.

Mariage, T.V. (1995). Why students learn: The nature of teacher talk during reading. Learning Disability Quarterly, 18(3), 214-234.

Marley, S. C., & Carbonneau, K. J. (2014). Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence relevant to classroom instruction with manipulatives. Educational Psychology Review, 26(1), 1-7.

Marley, S. C., Levin, J. R., & Glenberg, A. M. (2007). Improving Native American children's listening comprehension through concrete representations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32(3), 537-550.

Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on what works in schools. ASCD.

Marzano, R.J., Jachman, A.L., & D’Arcangelo, M. (2005). Building academic background knowledge. ASCD.

Marzano, R.J., & Pickering, D.J. (2005). Building Academic Vocabulary Teacher's Manual. Alexandria: ASCD, July 2005.

McCarthy, B., Li, L., Atienza, S., & Tiu, M. (2015, June). Engaging families in early mathematics learning: A study of a preschool family engagement model. Paper presented at the Jean Piaget Society Conference, Toronto, Ontario.

McMahon, S. D., Wernsman, J., & Rose, D. S. (2009). The relation of classroom environment and school belonging to academic self-efficacy among urban fourth-and fifth-grade students. The Elementary School Journal, 109(3), 267-281.

McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947–959.

Mentoring Minds. (2016). Research on graphic organizers. URL: Last retrieved: July 13, 2018.

Mercer, S., & Ryan, S. (2009). A mindset for EFL: learners’ beliefs about the role of natural talent. ELT Journal, 70(3), 436-444.

Morrison, V., & Wlodarczyk, L. (2009). Revisiting read-aloud: Instructional strategies that encourage students' engagement with texts. The Reading Teacher, 63(2), 110-118.

Murray, D. M. (1998). Design and Analysis of Group-randomized Trials. Oxford University Press.

NAEP/National Assessment of Educational Progress (2015). Retrieved from Last retrieved: July 4, 2018.

Nagy, W. E., & Scott, J. A. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D.

Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.

Nisbet, D., & Austin, D. (2013). Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development Through the Use of Mobile Technology. MPAEA Journal of Adult Education, 42(1), 1–7.

O'Brien, D., Beach, R., & Scharber, C. (2007). "Struggling" middle schoolers: Engagement and literate competence in a reading writing intervention class. Reading Psychology, 28(1), 51-73.

Opprezzo, M., & Schwartz, D.L. (2014). Give your ideas some legs: The positive effect of walking on creative thinking. The Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40(4), 1142-1152.

Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76(4), 763–782.

Parr, M. (2013). Text-to-speech technology as inclusive reading practice: Changing perspectives, overcoming barriers. LEARNing Landscapes, 6(2), 303-322.

Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 269-284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Peregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for Teaching K-12 English Learners, 6th Edition (pp. 224-248). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Peterson, S. S. (2010). Improving student writing using feedback as a teaching tool. Journal of Research into Practice, 29(2), 1-4.

Prion, S., & Mitchell, M. (2008). Audiobooks and cognitive Load. In C. Bonk, M. Lee, & T. Reynolds (Eds.), Proceedings of e-learn: World conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education 2008 (pp. 1917-1926). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Proctor, C.P., August, D., Carlo, M., & Snow, C. (2005). Native Spanish-speaking children reading in English: Toward a model of comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 246- 256.

Ranney, S. (2013). Preparing to teach academic language: edTPA frameworks and resources. University of Minnesota, August 2013.

Raudenbush, S. W. (1997). Statistical analysis and optimal design for cluster randomized trials. Psychological Methods, 2(2), 173–185.

Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Reid, R., Trout, A. L., & Schartz, M. (2005). Self-regulation interventions for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 71(4), 361.

Rolstad, K. (2005). Rethinking Academic Language in Second Language Instruction. In J. Cohen, K. T. McAlister, K. Rolstad & J. MacZwan (eds), ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. (pp.1993 – 2000) Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Rosenshine, B. (2012). Principles of instruction: Research-based strategies that all teachers should know. American Educator, 36(1), 12-19, 39.

Roskos, K.A., Christie, J.F., Richgels, D.J. (2003). The essentials of early literacy instruction. Report from the National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Schochet, P. Z. (2005). Statistical Power for Random Assignment Evaluations of Education Programs (p. 59). Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Retrieved from

Schroder, H. S., Fisher, M. E., Lin, Y., Lo, S. L., Danovitch, J. H., & Moser, J. S. (2017). Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged children with a growth mindset. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience.

Shield, B., Greenland, E., & Dockrell, J. (2010). Noise in open plan classrooms in primary schools: A review. Noise and Health, 12(49), 225.

Silver-Pacuilla, H., Ruedel, K., & Mistrett, S. (2004). A review of technology-based approaches for reading instruction: Tools for researchers and vendors. Buffalo, NY: The National Center for Technology Innovation.

Skoe, E., Krizman, J., & Kraus, N. (2013). The impoverished brain: Disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(44), 17221-17231.

Smith, J. A. (2000). Singing and songwriting support early literacy instruction. The Reading Teacher, 53(8), 646-649.

Swain, M. (2005). The output hypothesis: Theory and research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Second Language Teaching and Learning (pp. 471-484). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Takayoshi, P. & Selfe, C. L. (2007). Thinking about multimodality. In C. L. Selfe (Ed.), Multimodal Composition: Resources for Teachers (Chapter 1). New York, NY: Hampton Press.

Thompson, S. D., & Raisor, J. M. (2013). Meeting the sensory needs of young children. Young Children, 68(2), 34-43.

Thorne, G. (2006). 10 strategies to enhance students' memory. Metarie, LA: Center for Development and Learning.

Thorne, S. L., & Black, R. W. (2007). Language and literacy development in computer-mediated contexts and communities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 27, 133-160.

Uccelli, P., Barr, C.D., Dobbs, C.L., Galloway, E.P., Meneses, A., & Sanchez, E. (2015) Core academic language skills: An expanded operational construct and a novel instrument to chart school-relevant language proficiency in preadolescent and adolescent learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(5), 1077–1109. https://doi:10.1017/S014271641400006X

von Hippel, P. T. (2007). Regression with missing ys: an improved strategy for analyzing multiply imputed data. Sociological Methodology, 37(1), 83–117.

Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24(11), 2143–2152.

White, I. R., & Thompson, S. G. (2005). Adjusting for partially missing baseline measurements in randomized trials. Statistics in Medicine, 24(7), 993–1007.

Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. Handbook of reading research, 3, 403-422.

Wiggins, G. (2009). Real-world writing: Making purpose and audience matter. English Journal, 98.5, 29-37.

Wilhelm, J. D. (2001). Improving comprehension with think-aloud strategies. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

Willis, J. (2006). Research-based strategies to ignite student learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Whittingham, J., Huffman, S., Christensen, R., & McAllister, T. (2013). Use of audiobooks in a school library and positive effects of struggling readers’ participation in a library-sponsored audiobook club. School Library Research, 16, 1-18.